Note: Because you'll be excluding some major food groups on the keto diet (grains, many fruits) you should definitely think about taking a multivitamin—especially one that contains folic acid, which helps your body make new cells and is often found in enriched breads, cereals, and other grain products, says Julie Upton, R.D., cofounder of nutrition website Appetite for Health.
Hi Ben…first, I have learned so much from you, thank you! I’m interested in using exogenous ketone supplements and I have a question for you. I just read the transcript of an interview Dave Asprey did with Dr. Richard Veech (episode 299). He advises against them, and says they can even be harmful. I was disappointed to read this, and wanted to ask you about it, since I respect your opinion greatly….thank you.
The benefits above are the most common ones. But there are others that are potentially even more surprising and – at least for some people – life changing. Did you know that a keto diet can help treat high blood pressure, may result in less acne, may help control migraine, might help with certain mental health issues and could have a few other potential benefits?
This answer made me sad. Having lived in New York all of my life, I from a young age saw loved ones fall victim to spontaneous gluten intolerance and restaurants run to their rescue with accommodating menus.  This is why I get annoyed. What’s a dietary prescription for someone who wants to go to a dinner party and be able to eat a meal that was prepared for them? Keto is cultish not for its members’ radical commitment to a dietary restriction but for their lack of full participation in the outside world.
People claiming huge benefits of these supplements – despite the lack of solid scientific support – may sometimes have a financial reason to believe in the supplements. Some of these products are sold under a multi-level marketing arrangement, where sales people are paid based on commission. For example, the company Prüvit sells drinkable ketones, called KETO//OS with a multi-level marketing structure.
When you eat less than 50 grams of carbs a day, your body eventually runs out of fuel (blood sugar) it can use quickly. This typically takes 3 to 4 days. Then you’ll start to break down protein and fat for energy, which can make you lose weight. This is called ketosis. It's important to note that the ketogenic diet is a short term diet that's focussed on weight loss rather than the pursuit of health benefits. 
Protein will induce an insulin response in the body, if consumed in high amounts. The most intuitive way to start a keto diet for most people is by removing all of the carbs they have been eating. Typically people will replace those calories by increasing their lean meat consumption. That's a recipe for disaster! Keeping protein moderate is an often overlooked, but very important part of a keto diet. Most people need around 0.6g to 1.0g of protein per pound of lean body mass.
“To achieve the relatively high rates of intake (up to 90 grams/hour) needed to optimize results in events lasting longer than three hours, athletes should practice consuming carbohydrates during training to develop an individual strategy, and should make use of sport foods and drinks containing carbohydrate combinations that will maximize absorption from the gut and minimize gastrointestinal disturbances.”
I’ve been on and off of my Keto diet with the primary purpose of losing weight. I’m 30 years old, workout daily – I’m in decent shape but have some extra fat around the mid-section that I’d like to get rid of, I am hoping to lose ~20 pounds of fat. However, the problem is that I am an extremely picky eater with tremendous cravings for some of my favorite carb-heavy foods – I only eat a number of high-fat / low-carb foods that help me attain Ketosis, so cycling through them multiple times a week becomes excruciating. I find myself cheating on my diet every 2 – 3 weeks, which causes a 3 – 5 pound setback that takes me a few days to overcome and get back into ketosis.
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Wow! Such an informative article! A lot to take in! Loving that you mentioned the KETO//OS! I’ve actually lost 10 lbs in 3 weeks! Kinda cool. I haven’t heard of the other products but I’m excited the check them out! Also, the breath tool is new to me. Thank you! If anyone wants to checkout my testimonial with epilepsy, weight loss on the KETO//OS you can read it here: http://bit.ly/keto-os
In the first week, many people report headaches, mental fogginess, dizziness, and aggravation. Most of the time, this is the result of your electrolytes being flushed out, as ketosis has a diuretic effect. Make sure you drink plenty of water and keep your sodium intake up.6One of the fathers of keto, Dr. Phinney, shows that electrolyte levels (especially sodium) can become unbalanced with low carb intake.
The reason purity matters is that C17 is a byproduct of most MCT oil production processes, and it, along with C6, is a major cause of throat burning and gut irritation. Most MCT’s on the market are manufactured via chemical and solvent based refining, which involves using chemicals like hexane and different enzymes and combustion chemicals, such as sodium methoxide. But ideally, you should get an MCT oil that is made using triple steam distillation in a non-oxygen atmosphere to avoid lipid oxidation and create a purer end-product.
Short-term results for the LGIT indicate that at one month approximately half of the patients experience a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency, with overall figures approaching that of the ketogenic diet. The data (coming from one centre's experience with 76 children up to the year 2009) also indicate fewer side effects than the ketogenic diet and that it is better tolerated, with more palatable meals.[18][50]

I asked a few former keto dieters what their experience was like. My friend Anthony said he lost a ton of weight because he was no longer allowed to have basically anything unhealthy he had previously enjoyed, which ties back to “low rule complexity.” But he eventually stopped losing weight, started craving the foods he’d removed, and was nervous he’d gain weight again without these restrictions. A former professor of mine found herself in a state of general malaise that never passed (more on that later), and felt much more energetic overall when she dropped the diet.


Keto-adaption is a complex set of metabolic processes in which the body shifts from using primarily glucose for energy to using largely ketones and fat for energy. Achieving ketosis doesn’t mean the body is maximizing the use of these ketones; it takes longer than a few days for the body to get used to burning fat and ketones as its predominant fuels.
Adherence to a keto diet food list isn’t always great, though. A review published in January 2015 in the Journal of Clinical Neurology found that only 45 percent of participants were able to follow the approach as prescribed. “The poor compliance was attributed to side effects, social isolation, and cravings,” says Yawitz. And some people in the study “reported the diet simply wasn’t helping them lose weight,” she adds. Brissette agrees with this line of thinking. “In my opinion, the keto diet isn't sustainable and takes the joy and fun out of eating,” she says.
This is why Gaspari Nutrition chose highly branched cluster dextrin for what we consider to be the gold standard of recovery and performance drinks. This high molecular weight carbohydrate has a special helical structure, which gives it unique properties unlike many of the corn starches or polysaccharides out there. I'll be real with you and say this stuff isn’t cheap, but you certainly pay for what you get, and highly branched cluster dextrin is unlike any carb source I've found – especially if you want to control blood sugar levels and gut issues.
I am not an athlete. I am a mid 30’s male with a sedentary lifestyle. I am 5’10” and 250lbs. I have mild hypertension, high triglycerides, and pre-diabetes. I have eaten whatever I want and as much as I want for years. I have recently started walking/jogging 3-4 times a week, taking fish oil, and eating significantly less carbs plus added fish and steak. Is this diet appropriate and safe for me?

A study in the Journal of Applied Physiology showed that people who do twice-a-day workouts, but defy standard nutrition recommendations by not eating for two hours after the first session (thus depleting carbohydrate stores with the first session) experienced a better ability to burn fat (with no loss in performance) compared with a group that trained only once a day and ate carbohydrates afterward.

Keep up electrolytes. The major electrolytes in our bodies are sodium, potassium and magnesium. Because a low carb diet (especially a keto diet!) reduces the amount of water you store, this can flush out electrolytes and make you feel sick (called “keto flu”). This is temporary, but you can avoid or eliminate it by salting your food liberally, drinking broth (especially bone broth), and eating pickled vegetables. Some people also choose to take supplements for electrolytes, but it’s best to first consult a doctor that understands and supports keto/low carb lifestyles.
The DNA test does not necessarily take into account your goals (e.g. breathholding, Ironman, cognition, etc.) and if your goals would benefit from ketosis, then you may want to choose it as a dietary strategy even though it could indeed be true that for FAT LOSS a higher carb intake may suit you. So it all depends on your goals. Or you could just us the supplements like ketones AND eat more carbs and get "best of both worlds".

Putting — and then keeping — your body in ketosis isn’t exactly easy. You’ll need to severely minimize your intake of carbohydrates, eating no more than 20 to 50 grams (g) of carbs per day to get there and stay there. A single medium pear, for example, contains 26 g of carbs, and even foods that aren’t generally considered high in carbs — such as nuts and nonstarchy veggies — contain a small amount of carbohydrates, and so will need to be limited or avoided on this plan.
Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). Ketones can also be consumed in exogenous ketone foods and supplements.
The original therapeutic diet for paediatric epilepsy provides just enough protein for body growth and repair, and sufficient calories[Note 1] to maintain the correct weight for age and height. The classic therapeutic ketogenic diet was developed for treatment of paediatric epilepsy in the 1920s and was widely used into the next decade, but its popularity waned with the introduction of effective anticonvulsant medications. This classic ketogenic diet contains a 4:1 ratio by weight of fat to combined protein and carbohydrate. This is achieved by excluding high-carbohydrate foods such as starchy fruits and vegetables, bread, pasta, grains, and sugar, while increasing the consumption of foods high in fat such as nuts, cream, and butter.[1] Most dietary fat is made of molecules called long-chain triglycerides (LCTs). However, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs)—made from fatty acids with shorter carbon chains than LCTs—are more ketogenic. A variant of the classic diet known as the MCT ketogenic diet uses a form of coconut oil, which is rich in MCTs, to provide around half the calories. As less overall fat is needed in this variant of the diet, a greater proportion of carbohydrate and protein can be consumed, allowing a greater variety of food choices.[4][5]

The ketogenic diet is not a benign, holistic, or natural treatment for epilepsy; as with any serious medical therapy, complications may result.[28] These are generally less severe and less frequent than with anticonvulsant medication or surgery.[28] Common but easily treatable short-term side effects include constipation, low-grade acidosis, and hypoglycaemia if an initial fast is undertaken. Raised levels of lipids in the blood affect up to 60% of children[38] and cholesterol levels may increase by around 30%.[28] This can be treated by changes to the fat content of the diet, such as from saturated fats towards polyunsaturated fats, and if persistent, by lowering the ketogenic ratio.[38] Supplements are necessary to counter the dietary deficiency of many micronutrients.[18]
These are the widely recognized LCT’s, or long chain fatty acids in coconut oil, mostly saturated, including stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), and linoleic acid (18:2). The exact percentage of each depends on region the coconut is grown, time of harvest, and other growing variables. They are good as a fuel source in your food, and have some of the tastiness of coconut oil, if your goal is getting into ketosis fast, you won’t benefit from eating a lot more of them compared to eating true medium chain fatty acids.

When you order here, you get 1560g unflavored Glycofuse – 3.4 pound with zero nasty additives or artificial sweeteners, at only 100 calories per serving. Just pure, clean-burning highly branched cluster dextrin for that slow bleed of carbohydrates you need to support energy for a long workout or race, or for the glycogen replenishment you need after a tough day at the gym, without getting massive fluctuations in blood sugar. 
3) Cholesterol levels usually go up with inflammation, because inflammation causes damage to the tissues, and cholesterol is manufactured and released in circulation to patch things up. So, again, eating high fat is the best way to drop inflammation; not increase it. My hsCRP are always below 0.1, and most of the time, below detection level. Oxidation of cholesterol causes inflammation; not the other way around. So, your point about inflammation is a non-issue.
Since the body’s acid-base buffering system cannot neutralize the vast amount of acidic ketones, the blood pH drops significantly. This buildup of acids in the blood poisons the body and can lead to ketoacidosis.12 Breathing becomes deep and rapid as the body attempts to compensate for excessive acids. Other symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include:
Now open your eyes. Unfortunately, you still have the same amount of self-control as you before. Your roommate still wants to get margaritas and tacos next week. Butter still doesn’t taste good in coffee. Small-smilers on public transport are almost never going to say anything to you. The ketogenic diet is an empty promise, propagandized by brainwashed influencers and companies that want to profit from you. There’s no need to meditate on what being keto actually looks like -- just observe closely as the people around you, without apprehension, recreate their world based on diet blog listicles and tell you that you should, too -- until they realize the myth and quit and say nothing about it.
Ideally, you combine supplemental ketones with a relatively low carb diet, especially if metabolic efficeincy is important to you. HOWEVER, you can achieve most of the benefits of ketosis aside from the fat burning efficiency by using exogenous ketones. So it all depends on how lean you are, what's important to you from a performance vs. fat loss standpoint, etc.
People on the diet report being significantly more full and satisfied. Even though you may be ingesting LESS calories on the diet, your hunger doesn't increased. One possible explanation is greater consumption of satiating foods, primarily protein and fat. However, multiple studies indicate that the state of ketosis itself (apart from effects from food) plays a role as well.10

Since originally publishing this article, I’ve been asked whether elevating blood ketones with exogenous sources could trigger a ketone-induced release of insulin that would theoretically reduce hepatic ketogenesis and perhaps slow fat mobilization. This makes sense since you are putting more energy into the system in general (from exogenous ketones), so there would be less need to draw off your own fat stores.
I think there is a lot more to the story than ketosis or very low carb for everyone. In my own experience, high carb works much better. I tried very low carb for a long without really feeling amazing, I then switched back to high carb and quickly lost weight and leaned out. I still eat high carb and my strength is better and I'm even leaner now. I find it very difficult to overeat (I obviously eat very 'clean diet').
Ken, not 100% sure I understand your question but if you're asking if you should take any more supplements through out the week, it's hard to know without getting some blood testing done. If you want to go into detail, book a consult at bengreenfieldfitness.com/coaching and choose 20 or 60 mins and we'll get you scheduled. If you want to know specifically about fueling for your runs, have a read through this: https://bengreenfieldfitness.com/2013/07/what-…

Advocates for the diet recommend that it be seriously considered after two medications have failed, as the chance of other drugs succeeding is only 10%.[9][31][32] The diet can be considered earlier for some epilepsy and genetic syndromes where it has shown particular usefulness. These include Dravet syndrome, infantile spasms, myoclonic-astatic epilepsy, and tuberous sclerosis complex.[9][33]

The first modern study of fasting as a treatment for epilepsy was in France in 1911.[12] Twenty epilepsy patients of all ages were "detoxified" by consuming a low-calorie vegetarian diet, combined with periods of fasting and purging. Two benefited enormously, but most failed to maintain compliance with the imposed restrictions. The diet improved the patients' mental capabilities, in contrast to their medication, potassium bromide, which dulled the mind.[13]

This article really bothers me in that if you do a few incorrect things with this diet, it will actually do more harm than a full carb diet. I have been in ketosis for a month or so but to what detriment? Based on the “ketosis darkside” list you highlighted, i could be doing any or all of these without realising. Could i share with you my meal plans and see if in your opinion they are beneficial and healthy or if im digging myself an early grave?
Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) presents infrequently, but can occur with acute alcohol intoxication, most often following a binge in alcoholics with acute or chronic liver or pancreatic disorders. Alcoholic ketoacidosis occurs more frequently following methanol or ethylene glycol intoxication than following intoxication with uncontaminated ethanol.[11]

And what I’m writing has nothing to do with taking supplements to induce ketosis or whatever. I believe these things are covered in Volek & Phoney’s book The Art and Science of Low Carb Living, which I would have thought you to be very familiar with. The iodine stuff you can read about in Iodine, Why We Need, Why We Can’t Live Without It by Brownstein.


MCT oil is extracted primarily from coconut oil, and derives unique benefits from its shorter fatty acid chain length. Most dietary fat contains 12 carbons in the fatty acid chain, while MCTs are only 6 - 12 carbon chains in length. Shorter chain length allows for easier absorption and rapid conversion to energy in the liver, specifically caprylic (C8) and capric (C10).
Although many hypotheses have been put forward to explain how the ketogenic diet works, it remains a mystery. Disproven hypotheses include systemic acidosis (high levels of acid in the blood), electrolyte changes and hypoglycaemia (low blood glucose).[19] Although many biochemical changes are known to occur in the brain of a patient on the ketogenic diet, it is not known which of these has an anticonvulsant effect. The lack of understanding in this area is similar to the situation with many anticonvulsant drugs.[56]
Some clinicians[37] regard eliminating carbohydrates as unhealthy and dangerous.[38] However, it is not necessary to eliminate carbohydrates from the diet completely to achieve ketosis. Other clinicians regard ketosis as a safe biochemical process that occurs during the fat-burning state.[35] Ketosis, which is accompanied by gluconeogenesis (the creation of glucose de novo from pyruvate), is the specific state that concerns some clinicians. However, it is unlikely for a normally functioning person to reach life-threatening levels of ketosis, defined as serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (B-OHB) levels above 15 millimolar (mM) compared to ketogenic diets among non diabetics, which "rarely run serum B-OHB levels above 3 mM."[39] This is avoided with proper basal secretion of pancreatic insulin. People who are unable to secrete basal insulin, such as type 1 diabetics and long-term type II diabetics, are liable to enter an unsafe level of ketosis, eventually resulting in a coma that requires emergency medical treatment.[citation needed] The anti-ketosis conclusions have been challenged by a number of doctors and advocates of low-carbohydrate diets, who dispute assertions that the body has a preference for glucose and that there are dangers associated with ketosis.[40][41]
In addition to adding in precious electrolytes such as potassium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, and calcium for supporting nerve impulses and muscle contraction, the Gaspari Nutrition R&D Team have also build their Osm Technology into this product. This “new way” of looking at carbohydrate drinks utilizes a proprietary method of tuning the electrolytes in solution with pure cyclic dextrin to get an optimal osmolality (mOsm). In a nutshell, this results in lower osmolality, and lower osmolality results in faster gastric clearance, and a clean, easy burn of your fuel.
As insulin levels plummet from carb-cutting, more water is flushed out, along with excess sodium (in contrast, excess insulin from carbs causes sodium and water retention).4 In some people, dehydration contributes to constipation, which can also result from avoiding fiber-rich carbohydrate foods. While less common, diarrhea or loose bowels can be triggered by a number of factors including too much or too little fat, dairy intolerance, or changes in gut flora. 

Ben – curious about your thoughts on this. I went into ketosis (using LOTS of coconut oil) but it raised my cholesterol and doc was worried about my lp(a) level (17mg/dL on VAP) even though crp was 0.5, trigs 51 and a1c was 5.2. Advised a low fat diet. Have you seen this before with folks on a lchf/ketosis diet and is there anything to be concerned about? Off to read your coconut oil article. Thank you!
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