^ Lockyer, Christina (1991). "Body composition of the sperm whale, Physeter cation, with special reference to the possible functions of fat depots" (PDF). Journal of the Marine Research Institute. 12 (2). ISSN 0484-9019. Retrieved 2014-04-25. The significant levels of carbohydrate, probably mostly in the form of glycogen, in both blubber and muscle, may represent an instant form of energy for diving via anaerobic glycolysis.
As insulin levels plummet from carb-cutting, more water is flushed out, along with excess sodium (in contrast, excess insulin from carbs causes sodium and water retention).4 In some people, dehydration contributes to constipation, which can also result from avoiding fiber-rich carbohydrate foods. While less common, diarrhea or loose bowels can be triggered by a number of factors including too much or too little fat, dairy intolerance, or changes in gut flora. 
The nerve impulse is characterised by a great influx of sodium ions through channels in the neuron's cell membrane followed by an efflux of potassium ions through other channels. The neuron is unable to fire again for a short time (known as the refractory period), which is mediated by another potassium channel. The flow through these ion channels is governed by a "gate" which is opened by either a voltage change or a chemical messenger known as a ligand (such as a neurotransmitter). These channels are another target for anticonvulsant drugs.[7]
Hi Ben great science & sound advice. May I share with the group? I’m 42, in australia, have been an alcoholic for 10 yrs. In April 2016 I gave up drinking & started living strictly ketogenic. In 3 months I dropped 25 kilos. I have cheated on weekends but I go through a fast of sorts on Mondays to get back into ketosis by Tues. I work afternoon / evenings so I wake at 10.30am take a pre workout drink with raspberry ketones & a splash of mct oil & all my vitamins as well. I then do weights for an hr then get ready to go to work. I take 2 800ml protein shakes consisting of 20 ml mct & 30grm amino enhanced protein. I work in warehousing so I walk anywhere between 10 km & 5 km a nite. I feel great all the time, thanks largely to your research & advice. If have any thoughts or opinions I’d love hear them.
Meat products make up a big part of the keto diet, but experts stress the importance of choosing quality. "Since the keto diet is based a lot on animal proteins, it's important to buy organic poultry and grass-fed, organic beef," says Aimee Aristotelous, RD. "Not only do organic selections help with limiting environmental toxins, but grass-fed options of red meats even change the composition of fats." The result, she explains, is that your body is able to better absorb those healthy fats.

^ Lawrie 2014, pp. 92-. "A much delayed onset of rigor mortis has been observed in the muscle of the whale (Marsh, 1952b). The ATP level and the pH may remain at their high in vivo values for as much as 24h at 37ºC. No adequate explanation of this phenomenon has yet been given; but the low basal metabolic rate of whale muscle (Benedict, 1958), in combination with the high content of oxymyoglobin in vivo (cf 4.3.1), may permit aerobic metabolism to continue slowly for some time after the death of the animal, whereby ATP levels can be maintained sufficiently to delay the union of actin and myosin in rigor mortis."
In addition, most studies that compare carbohydrate utilization with fat utilization fail to take into account the fact that full “fat adaptation” that allows you to gain all the benefits of using fat as a fuel actually takes time – often more than four weeks – and up to a couple years. But since most studies that compare fat and carbohydrate burning are short-term, you rarely see the benefits of this kind of fat adaptation actually fleshed out in research. Instead, the average research participant begins the study in a non-fat adapted state, gets either a high fat or high carb diet, then launches into exercise. But in an ideal study, that person would have followed either a high-fat or high-carb diet for many months before getting their fat burning capability investigated.
If you’re following the keto diet, you will need protein, but you should limit your intake to about 20 percent of your total daily calories. (1) This is important because when you consume more protein than you need, your body converts the excess protein into carbs through a process called gluconeogenesis. This process pushes your body out of ketosis.
When you eat less than 50 grams of carbs a day, your body eventually runs out of fuel (blood sugar) it can use quickly. This typically takes 3 to 4 days. Then you’ll start to break down protein and fat for energy, which can make you lose weight. This is called ketosis. It's important to note that the ketogenic diet is a short term diet that's focussed on weight loss rather than the pursuit of health benefits. 
^ Greenberg CR, Dilling LA, Thompson GR, Seargeant LE, Haworth JC, Phillips S, Chan A, Vallance HD, Waters PJ, Sinclair G, Lillquist Y, Wanders RJ, Olpin SE (April 2009). "The paradox of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase type Ia P479L variant in Canadian Aboriginal populations". Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 96 (4): 201–7. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2008.12.018. PMID 19217814.

During my private and group therapy sessions I learned a lot of information that would be beneficial to the average dieter. My first therapy assignment was to go out and buy a food I used to enjoy, so I purchased M&Ms and relearned how to allow myself a little bit each day. I learned that binges are triggered not by enjoyment of a food but by the feeling that you should stop eating and can’t. I was taught about intuitive eating, which helped me break down my regimented eating schedule and lean into my natural inclination to seek variety of foods in order to reduce cravings. You can find all of these materials online.
Moreover, recent studies show that the Inuit have evolved a number of rare genetic adaptations that make them especially well suited to eat large amounts of omega-3 fat.[57][58][59] And earlier studies showed that the Inuit have a very high frequency—68% to 81% in certain arctic coastal populations—of an extremely rare autosomal recessive mutation of the CPT1A gene—a key regulator of mitochondrial long-chain fatty-acid oxidation[60][61]—which results in a rare metabolic disorder known as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) deficiency and promotes hypoketotic hypoglycemia—low levels of ketones and low blood sugar.[62] The condition presents symptoms of a fatty acid and ketogenesis disorder.[62] However, it appears highly beneficial to the Inuit[60] as it shunts free fatty acids away from liver cells to brown fat, for thermogenesis.[63][64] Thus the mutation may help the Inuit stay warm by preferentially burning fatty acids for heat in brown fat cells.[64] In addition to promoting low ketone levels, this disorder also typically results in hepatic encephalopathy (altered mental state due to improper liver function), enlarged liver and high infant mortality.[65] Inuit have been observed to have enlarged livers with an increased capacity for gluconeogenesis, and have greater capacity for excreting urea to remove ammonia, a toxic byproduct of protein breakdown.[57][66][67][68] Ethnographic texts have documented the Inuit's customary habit of snacking frequently [69] and this may well be a direct consequence of their high prevalence of the CPT1A mutation[70] as fasting, even for several hours, can be deleterious for individuals with that allele, particularly during strenuous exercise.[57][70] The high frequency of the CPT1A mutation in the Inuit therefore suggests that it is an important adaptation to their low carbohydrate diet and their extreme environment.[57][60][70]

Whether you’re whipping them into a recipe or snacking on a handful of them raw, blackberries can make a great addition to your keto meal plan. A ½-cup serving doesn’t contain much fat (less than ½ g) but is also low in net carbs, with just 3.1 g. The same serving size offers 3.8 g of fiber (15.2 percent DV) and 3.5 g of sugar. Blackberries also provide potassium, with 117 mg (2.5 percent DV) per ½-cup serving. It has 15.1 mg of vitamin C (25.2 percent DV) and 14.3 mg of vitamin K (17.9 percent DV). This fruit is also a great snack for weight loss, containing about 31 cal per ½ cup.
Here’s what we do know: The keto diet may be useful in treating symptoms of epilepsy, a seizure disorder. “The use of keto in treating epilepsy has the most evidence,” Angelone says. One study conducted by Johns Hopkins Medicine, for example, followed epileptic patients on the keto diet and found that 36 percent of them had a 50 percent reduction in seizures after three months on the diet, and 16 percent were seizure-free. However, experts aren't entirely sure why the keto diet has this affect, she adds.
Exogenous ketosis comes from an external source. Consuming exogenous ketones, like a ketone drink containing a ketone ester or a ketone salt, raises blood ketone levels. The body isn't producing ketones in this state, but still remains in ketosis from having ketones introduced from an outside source. However, the body isn't ketogenic–that specifically means the body is producing its own ketones.
Can’t get enough of avocados? You now have a great excuse to eat more of them. A ½-cup serving of the creamy fruit has almost 12 g of fat and only 2.6 g of net carbs. Avocados are also low in calories (about 138 for the same serving), making them an ideal snack in between meals. One serving also has about 6.4 g of dietary fiber (25.6 percent daily value, or DV), 404 milligrams (mg) of potassium (8.6 percent DV), and only 2.8 g of sugar. Try topping your salad with cubed avocado for a keto-friendly lunch.
Let’s meditate for a second. Close your eyes. What do you see when you picture yourself on keto? Naturally, carb deprivation has carved out Michelangelo's David from your block of pudgy carrara marble. You have so much more energy now, thanks to the chunk of grass-fed butter (or ghee!) you’ve slid into your morning coffee. You're so spry, in fact, that you’re considering investing in bitcoin even though you’re late to the game, or writing a novel even though you don’t read, or getting into a relationship just because you’re overwhelmed by the trove of eligible suitors now bashfully small-smiling at you on public transport.
Con: Results can vary depending on how much fluid you drink. By drinking more water, you dilute the concentration of ketones in the urine and thus a lower level of ketones will be detected on the strips. The strips don’t show a precise ketone level. Finally, and most importantly, as you become increasingly keto-adapted and your body reabsorbs ketones from the urine, urine strips may become unreliable, even if you’re in ketosis.

It is possible to combine the results of several small studies to produce evidence that is stronger than that available from each study alone—a statistical method known as meta-analysis. One of four such analyses, conducted in 2006, looked at 19 studies on a total of 1,084 patients.[23] It concluded that a third achieved an excellent reduction in seizure frequency and half the patients achieved a good reduction.[18]


My keto journey began with chicken and avocado, like many high-fat brethren before me, until I eventually found the paleo cookbooks and created a little diet-friendly life for myself, devoid of family party-friendly foods but productive and communal in its own way. I was joining the online forums. I was reading studies about the health benefits of keto. I was drinking the bone-broth Kool-Aid, believing my fasting states and butter coffee were catapulting me towards some sort of psychophysiological excellence. I lost around 15lbs in 2015 because I didn’t allow myself most of the foods I usually “overdid” and was motivated not only by the progress but by the exclusive, cultish energy of ketosis. We were not the Google diet generation -- we were Google scholar. We treated epilepsy, after all, and our fearless keto leaders preached the Good News to all who would listen, then verbally abused well-meaning bloggers and medical professionals who suggested that extreme dieting might be unhealthy and unsustainable. Amen?
As you may know, "keto diet" is short for ketogenic diet, because who has the time to say "genic." It is a high-fat, moderate-protein, and low-carb diet with approximately 80% of your calories from fat, 15% from protein, and only 5% from carbohydrates. The goal of the diet is to induce ketosis in your body. The theory is that typically your body may rely on burning the carbs that you eat rather than the fat stores in your body for energy. The thinking is that by severely restricting the amount of carbs in your diet your body may then be forced to burn your body fat instead. Breaking down this fat then results in ketones, which is not some acapella group, but instead organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. One type of ketone produced is acetone, which is in certain types of nail polish removers. This accumulation of ketones may result in "keto breath", which is a rotten fruit or metallic smelling bad breath that can smell a bit like, surprise, surprise, nail polish remover.
I have been taking Ucan 30 Minutes before run and take UCAN 1 Hour into run and 1 hour later. Also take BCAA powder in 8 ounce liquid during run. I have been doing HFAT and LCARB diet. Problem i slow down after 1 1/2 hour during my long run. I need your advice help fueling my run after 14 miles. This my first Marathon, I have run 7 Half Marathon around 1.58.
Similar to the BHB salts and MCT’s from the KETO//OS I discuss above, powdered forms of ketones are excellent if you don’t want to completely eliminate carbohydrates or protein (which can be gluconeogenic when eaten in excess) or eat copious amounts of fats, but want to simultaneously maintain high levels of blood ketones. It may also be used to ease the transition into a ketogenic state, because it can help alleviate the fatigue and lethargy some  people experience while making the transition from a glucose metabolism (carb burning mode) to ketone metabolism (fat burning mode).
So I was following a ketogenic plan for the past month in an effort to lose about 4-5% body fat and try to turn down the inflammation in my body to help with my hashimotos and psoriasis. I don’t eat meat, so it was ALOT of eggs (from the farmers market), primal mayo, wild caught salmon and cold smoked lox (vital choice), brain octane oil, coconut oil, avocado oil with VERY little carbs…like 85% fat, 10% protein and 5% TOTAL carbs. I was eating about 1100-1200cal per day and BELOW 18g TOTAL carbs…Couldn’t get above .6 in AM fasted blood ketones or below 80 fasted blood sugar. I do 90min of Ashtanga yoga (primary and half of second series) 5 days a week and 20-30min weight/HIIT style workouts about 3-4 days per week (Kettlebell, jump rope, plyometrics and free weights). I take Concentrac Trace Minerals along with my d3/k2, l-carnitine, l-glutamine, forskollei, green pastures butter/cod liver oil and probiotics. I have been at the Bulletproof Conference this weekend and I bought the new Bulletproof exogenous Ketones to try.
Hi Barb, That can definitely be it. Losing when you are close to goal can be more difficult. It could also be that your body’s healthy weight is a little higher than what you’d like – which doesn’t mean you can’t lose, but makes it more difficult. If just eating Keto foods isn’t working, double check the macros for your weight and see if the amount you’re eating needs to be adjusted. You’ll find more help and support in our support group here.
“To achieve the relatively high rates of intake (up to 90 grams/hour) needed to optimize results in events lasting longer than three hours, athletes should practice consuming carbohydrates during training to develop an individual strategy, and should make use of sport foods and drinks containing carbohydrate combinations that will maximize absorption from the gut and minimize gastrointestinal disturbances.”

You indicate that exogenous ketones do not shut down the ability, of your body, to oxidize fat. Is that to say it does not have an effect on your body at all? My specific question is… does my body oxidize less fat, when supplementing with exogenous ketones? I think you indicate in your article that it could. I would expect it to, in that if I supplement then my body would not “need” to oxidize the fat to provide the energy.

Advocates for the diet recommend that it be seriously considered after two medications have failed, as the chance of other drugs succeeding is only 10%.[9][31][32] The diet can be considered earlier for some epilepsy and genetic syndromes where it has shown particular usefulness. These include Dravet syndrome, infantile spasms, myoclonic-astatic epilepsy, and tuberous sclerosis complex.[9][33]

In dairy cattle, ketosis is a common ailment that usually occurs during the first weeks after giving birth to a calf. Ketosis is in these cases sometimes referred to as acetonemia. A study from 2011 revealed that whether ketosis is developed or not depends on the lipids a cow uses to create butterfat. Animals prone to ketosis mobilize fatty acids from adipose tissue, while robust animals create fatty acids from blood phosphatidylcholine (lecithin). Healthy animals can be recognized by high levels of milk glycerophosphocholine and low levels of milk phosphocholine.[76] Point of care diagnostic tests are available and are reasonably useful.[77]
Urine test for diabetes: What you need to know Urine tests for diabetes check for protein, ketones, and glucose. They are frequently used for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes, and to assess people who are experiencing symptoms, such as fatigue or nausea. Depending on the results, recommendations may be given about medication or lifestyle changes that could help. Read now
People claiming huge benefits of these supplements – despite the lack of solid scientific support – may sometimes have a financial reason to believe in the supplements. Some of these products are sold under a multi-level marketing arrangement, where sales people are paid based on commission. For example, the company Prüvit sells drinkable ketones, called KETO//OS with a multi-level marketing structure.
It’s easy to get caught up on the “low-carb” part of the diet and not give enough attention to the “high-fat” part. Fat is what makes you full, gives you energy (when in ketosis), and makes food taste delicious. For most people this figure should be north of 70 percent of daily calories. Keep carbs under 20g, hit your protein goal, and eat fat until you’re full.
A study in the Journal of Applied Physiology showed that people who do twice-a-day workouts, but defy standard nutrition recommendations by not eating for two hours after the first session (thus depleting carbohydrate stores with the first session) experienced a better ability to burn fat (with no loss in performance) compared with a group that trained only once a day and ate carbohydrates afterward.
Well, I am going to give this another try. I have great difficulty in eating greens , or drinking them, also I am not fond of fats, years and years of low fat diets have totally screwed my metabolism,and taste buds. I will read this page every day to keep my mind focused. Start tomorrow when I get up …… I work nights which can cause me problems as well. When I tried this diet before, I got terrible cramp, now I realise I wasn’t drinking enough water. Anyway.here goes.
Another difference between older and newer studies is that the type of patients treated with the ketogenic diet has changed over time. When first developed and used, the ketogenic diet was not a treatment of last resort; in contrast, the children in modern studies have already tried and failed a number of anticonvulsant drugs, so may be assumed to have more difficult-to-treat epilepsy. Early and modern studies also differ because the treatment protocol has changed. In older protocols, the diet was initiated with a prolonged fast, designed to lose 5–10% body weight, and heavily restricted the calorie intake. Concerns over child health and growth led to a relaxation of the diet's restrictions.[19] Fluid restriction was once a feature of the diet, but this led to increased risk of constipation and kidney stones, and is no longer considered beneficial.[18]

1. If a set number ketones in the blood is an indicator that my body has transitioned to ketosis and not necessarily the cause (the cause being limited access to glycogen because of limited carb intake) then how does using exogenous ketones put me in ketosis as opposed to mimic being in ketosis (because when measuring blood ketones suddenly there are more because I put them there, I didn’t create them)? 
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